The papers listed below document the development of the symmetrical immune network theory by Geoffrey W. Hoffmann and his colleagues. For some of them there are links to summaries. From the first paper published in 1975 to the present, the scope of the theory has steadily increased. The theory now encompasses a large body of data about the adaptive immune system.

  1. Hoffmann, G.W., “A Theory of Regulation and Self-Nonself Discrimination in an Immune Network”, European Journal of Immunology, 5, 638-647 (1975).
  2. Hoffmann, G.W., “Incorporation of a Non-specific T Cell Dependent Helper Factor into a Network Theory of the Regulation of the Immune Response”, in “Theoretical Immunology”, G.I. Bell, A.S. Perelson and G.H. Pimbley (eds.) Marcel Dekker, N.Y., (1978) pp. 571-602.
  3. Hoffmann, G.W., “Mathematical Modelling of a Network Theory of Self- Regulation in the Immune System” in Proceedings of the 1978 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control. p. 740-745, IEEE Control Systems Society, 1978.
  4. Hoffmann, G.W., “A Mathematical Model of the Stable States of a Network Theory of Self-Regulation” in Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, vol. 32, (C. Bruni et al., eds.) pp. 239-257 Springer-Verlag (1979). This paper describes a mathematical model that exhibits four stable states for an antigen – the virgin state, the immune state, the suppressed state and the anti-immune state.
  5. Hoffmann, G.W., “Das Immunsystem”, Chemie in Unsere Zeit 13, 1-10 (1979). An introduction to the theory in German.
  6. Hoffmann, G.W., “On Network Theory and H-2 Restriction”, in Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology, (N. Warner, Ed.), vol. 11, 185-226 (1980).
  7. Hoffmann, G.W., “On the `Intelligence’ of Antigen-specific Receptors from a Network Point of View” in “The Strategy of Immune Regulation”, E. Sercarz and A.J. Cunningham, Eds. Academic Press, New York, 1980, pp. 401-403.
  8. Hoffmann, G.W., “On Network Theory, Ly Phenotypes and Connectivity” in “The Immune System, Festschrift in Honour of Niels Kaj Jerne, on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday” (I. Lefkovits and C. Steinberg, Eds.) Karger, Basel, 1981, vol. I, pp. 28-34.
  9. Gunther, N. and Hoffmann, G.W., “Qualitative Dynamics of a Network Model of Regulation of the Immune System: A Rationale for the IgM to IgG Switch”, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 94, 815-855 (1982).
  10. Hoffmann, G.W., “The Application of Stability Criteria in Evaluating Network Regulation Models”, in Regulation of Immune Response Dynamics, C. DeLisi and J. Hiernaux (Eds.), CRC Press 1982, pp. 137-162. 
  11. Hoffmann, G.W. and Cooper-Willis, A., “Symmetry, Complexity and Stability in Immune System Network Theory”.In Mathematical Modelling in Immunology and Medicine, G.I. Marchuk and L.N. Belykh, (eds.), North Holland Press, Amsterdam, 1983, pp. 31-42.
  12. Cooper-Willis, A. and Hoffmann, G.W., “Symmetry of Effector Function in the Immune System Network”, Mol. Immunol., 20, (8), 865-870 (1983). 
  13. Singhai, R., Hoffmann, G.W., and Levy, J.G., “Abrogation and Reconstitution of Non-Responsiveness: A Correlation with High Network Connectivity” Eur. J. Immunol. 15, 526-529, 1985.
  14. Hoffmann, G.W., Levy J.G. and Nepom, G.T., “On Paradoxes and Progress in Science”, Preface to Paradoxes in Immunology, (Hoffmann, G.W., Levy, J.G. and Nepom, G.T., Editors), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1986.
  15. Hoffmann, G.W., “The Smell of H-2″, Chapter 9 in “Paradoxes in Immunology”, Hoffmann, G.W., Levy, J.G., and Nepom, G.T. (Eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 111-114, 1986.
  16. Hoffmann, G.W. and Kilburn, D.G., “Does Network Theory Tell Us What to Expect?”, Commentary on “Idiotypic Networks in Tumor Immunity”, by G. Nepom and K. A. Nelson, in “Paradoxes in Immunology”, Hoffmann, G.W., Levy, J.G. and Nepom, G.T. (Eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 184-185, 1986.
  17. Hoffmann, G.W., “Another Paradox”, Commentary on “T Cell Regulation Without Clonal Selection by Antigen? Polygamous Suppressor Cells and Monogamous Helper Cells at Higher Frequencies” by I. Melchers and K. Eichmann. In “Paradoxes in Immunology”, Hoffmann, G.W., Levy, J.G., and Nepom, G.T. (Eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 149-150, 1986.
  18. Hoffmann, G.W. and Hraba, T., “The Structure of Mathematical Immunology” in “Immunology and Epidemiology” (G.W. Hoffmann and T. Hraba, Editors) in the series “Lecture Notes in Biomathematics” (S. Levin, Series editor), vol. 65, pp. 2-6 Springer-Verlag (1986).
  19. Hoffmann, G. W., “On IJ, a network centre pole and AIDS. In“The Semiotics of Cellular Communication in the Immune System” (E. Sercarz, F. Celada, N. A. Mitchison and T. Tada, Eds.) Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988, pp. 257-271.
  20. Hoffmann, G. W., Kion, T. A., Forsyth, R. B., Soga, K. G. and Cooper-Willis, A., “The N-Dimensional Network”. In “Theoretical Immunology, Part Two”, A. S. Perelson, Ed., Santa Fe Institute Series “Studies in the Science of Complexity”, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 291-319. 
  21. Grant, M., Kion, T. A., Forsyth, R. B., and Hoffmann, G. W., “IDS, αIDS and AIDS” in “Cellular Basis of Immune Modulation”, J. G. Kaplan and D. R. Green, eds., 1989, A. R. Liss, Inc., New York, pp. 481-484.
  22. Hoffmann, G. W., Grant M. and Kion, T. A., “Is AIDS Provoked Autoimmunity?”Canadian Research, 21, No. 6, pp. 16-23, Sept. 1988. A popular level presentation of the theory that HIV causes autoimmunity.
  23. Grant, M. D., Weaver, M. S., Tsoukas, C., and Hoffmann, G. W., “Distribution of Antibodies against Denatured Collagen in AIDS Risk Groups and Homosexual AIDS Patients Suggests a Link between Autoimmunity and the Immunopathogenesis of AIDS” J. Immunol., 144, 1241-1250, 1990. Data that supports the link between HIV/AIDS and autoimmunity.
  24. Forsyth, R. B. and Hoffmann, G. W., “A study of auto-antiidiotypes to BSA,” J. Immunol., 145, 215-223, 1990. 
  25. Hoffmann, G. W., “The Immune System: A neglected challenge for network theorists., “Proc. of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Portland Oregon, 1989.(invited symposium paper), 1620-1623.
  26. Hoffmann, G. W. and Grant, M. D., “When HIV Meets the Immune System: Network Theory, Alloimmunity, Autoimmunity and AIDS.”in “Mathematical and Statistical Approaches to AIDS Epidemiology,” C. Castillo-Chavez, Ed., in Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, vol. 83, Springer-Verlag, 1989, pp. 386-405.
  27. Hoffmann, G. W. and Grant, M. D., “On AIDS, alloimmunity and autoimmunity”, in “Idiotype Networks in Biology and Medicine”, A. D. M. E. Osterhaus and F. G. C. M. UytdeHaag, Eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990, pp. 295-299.
  28. Hoffmann, G. W., Kion, T. A. and Grant, M. D., “An Idiotypic Network Model of AIDS Immunopathogenesis” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 88, 3060-3064 (1991).
  29. Hoffmann, G. W. and Tufaro, F., “Serological Distance Coefficients”, Immunol. Letters,22, 83-90, 1989. 
  30. G. W. Hoffmann, “A Response to Duesberg with Reference to an Idiotypic Network Model of AIDS Immunopathogenesis. Res. in Immunol.,141, 701-709, 1990. This is a response to an HIV/AIDS denier.
  31. Kion, T. A. and Hoffmann, G. W., “Anti-HIV and anti-anti-MHC Antibodies in Alloimmune and Autoimmune Mice”, Science, 253, 1138-1140, 1991.
  32. Hoffmann, G. W., “On specific T cell factors”, Immunol. Today, 12, 465-466, 1991.
  33. Hoffmann, G. W. and Kion, T. A., “On second symmetry and AIDS” in“Theoretical and Experimental Insights into Immunology” , A. S. Perelson and G. Weisbuch, Eds., 1992, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 353-364.
  34. Süsal, C., Hoffmann, G. W., Daniel, V., Grant, M. D. and Opelz, G., “Complementarities and Network Interactions in AIDS”. J. Autoimmunity, 6, 601-610, 1993.
  35. Hoffmann, G. W. and Kion, T. A., “On allogeneic lymphocytes as cofactors in AIDS pathogenesis and the concept of co-selection.”In “New Concepts in AIDS Pathogenesis”, L. Montagnier and Marie-Lise Gougeon, Eds., Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993, pp. 273-290.
  36. Hoffmann, G. W., “Coselection in Immune Network Theory and in AIDS Pathogenesis”. Immunology and Cell Biology, 72, 338-346, 1994. This paper includes the postulate that HIV preferentially infects HIV-specific helper T cells, which was shown experimentally to be correct in 2002 by Douek et al. Nature 417, 95‑98.
  37. Royer, S. T., Mathewson, D. J. and Hoffmann, G. W., “On network distance coefficients and network dynamics” J. Biol. Systems,1995; 3, 415-427.
  38. Hoffmann, G. W., “The T Cell Receptor and AIDS Pathogenesis” Scandinavian J. Immunol.,41, 331-337, 1995. Summary
  39. Grant, M. D., Whaley, M. D., Mayne, A., Hoffmann, G. W. and Ansari A. A., “Similar abnormalities of idiotype and immunoglobulin light chain expression and of cell-mediated cytotoxicity in HIV-infected humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques” Immunology and Cell Biology 74, 38-44, 1996.
  40. Abdulaziz Al-Fahim and Geoffrey W. Hoffmann, “Second symmetry in the Balb/c-C57BL/6 (B6) system, and anti-anti-self antibodies in old B6 mice”, Immunology and Cell Biology 76, 27-33, 1998.
  41. Bourinbaiar, A. S., Jirathitikal, V., Hoffmann, G. W. and Lu, N.-Q, “AIDS vaccines and immunotherapy of infertility”, National Journal of Andrology, 11, 163-169 (2005). In Chinese.
  42. Hoffmann, G. W., ”Immune Network Theory” first edition (2008).
  43. Hoffmann, G. W., “Recent Developments in Immune Network Theory including a concept for an HIV Vaccine”, arXiv: 0812.4467v2 (2008).
  44. Leung, E. and Hoffmann, G. W. “MHC Restriction of V-V Interactions in Serum IgG”  (2010) 
  45. Hoffmann, G. W., “An Improved Version of the Symmetrical Immune Network Theory” arXiv:1004.5107 (2010).
  46. Hoffmann, G. W., “Immune Network Theory” second edition (2011)
  47. Hoffmann, G. W., Muller, S. and Kohler, H., “Towards an HIV vaccine based on immune network theory” Curr. Trends Immunol. 13, 69-79 (2012).
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